Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR)
The GFR system is a high-temperature helium-cooled fast-spectrum reactor with a closed fuel cycle. It combines the advantages of fast-spectrum systems for long-term sustainability of uranium resources and waste minimisation (through fuel multiple reprocessing and fission of long-lived actinides), with those of high-temperature systems (high thermal cycle efficiency and industrial use of the generated heat, for hydrogen production for example).
The GFR uses the same fuel recycling processes as the SFR and the same reactor technology as the VHTR. Therefore, its development approach is to rely, in so far as feasible, on technologies developed for the VHTR for structures, materials, components and power conversion system. Nevertheless, it calls for specific R&D beyond the current and foreseen work on the VHTR system, mainly on core design and safety approach.
The reference design for GFR is based around a 2 400 MWth reactor core contained within a steel pressure vessel. The core consists of an assembly of hexagonal fuel elements, each consisting of ceramic-clad, mixed-carbide-fuelled pins contained within a ceramic hex-tube. The favoured material at the moment for the pin clad and hex-tubes is silicon carbide fibre reinforced silicon carbide. The figure below shows the reactor core located within its fabricated steel pressure vessel surrounded by main heat exchangers and decay heat removal loops. The whole of the primary circuit is contained within a secondary pressure boundary, the guard containment.
The coolant is helium and the core outlet temperature will be of the order of 850°C. A heat exchanger transfers the heat from the primary helium coolant to a secondary gas cycle containing a helium-nitrogen mixture which, in turn drives a closed cycle gas turbine. The waste heat from the gas turbine exhaust is used to raise steam in a steam generator which is then used to drive a steam turbine. Such a combined cycle is common practice in natural gas-fired power plant so represents an established technology, with the only difference in the GFR case being the use of a closed cycle gas-turbine.
- Stainsby R., Garnier J.C., Guedeney P.,Mikityuk K., Mizuno T., Poette C., Pouchon M., Rini M., Somers J., Touron E. The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor. Paper 11321, Proc. ICAPP 2011 Nice, France, 2-5 May 2011.
- Perkó Z., Kloosterman J.L., Fehér S., Minor Actinide Transmutation in GFR600. Nuclear Technology, Vol 177, January 2012.
- Stainsby R., Peers K., Mitchell C., Poette C., Mikityuk K., Somers J., Gas cooled fast reactor research in Europe, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol 241, 2011, pp. 3481 3489.
- Epiney A., Alpy N., Mikityuk K., Chawla R., A standalone decay heat removal device for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor for intermediate to atmospheric pressure conditions. Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol 242, January 2012, pp. 267-284.