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Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection Working Group (PRPPWG)

The Generation IV Roadmap defined the following Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection goal for future nuclear energy systems:

Generation IV nuclear energy systems will increase the assurance that they are a very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against acts of terrorism.

Evaluation methodology

This report presents an evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of six measures for PR and three measures for PP, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as design progresses. Uncertainty of results are recognized and incorporated into the evaluation at all stages. The results are intended for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. Program policy makers will be more likely to be interested in the high-level measures that discriminate among choices, while system designers will be more interested in measures that directly relate to design options that will improve PR&PP performance of the NES.

Evaluation Methodology for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems - Rev 6 pdf icon (653 KB)


PR&PP Compendium Report of Gen-IV systems

This report was prepared jointly by the PRPPWG and the six GIF System Steering Committees (SSCs), and it is an outcome of workshop exchanges and white paper collaborations for each of the Gen-IV system designs. The report presents the status of proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) characteristics for each of the six nuclear energy systems selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for further research and development. The intent is to generate preliminary information about the PR&PP merits of each system and to recommend directions for optimizing their PR&PP performance.

Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection of the Six Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems pdf icon (1.73 MB)


Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) Case Study Report

The Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) Case Study Report is the main outcome from a study carried out by the GIF PRPPWG in order to test on a specific application the PR&PP Methodology developed by the Group. We hope that the Report will be of interest to future nuclear energy system designers, policy makers, and PR&PP analysts. Comments, remarks and suggestions from readers are welcome and will be taken into account in determining further activities to be undertaken by GIF. Please send your comments to the GIF Secretariat.

Download the ESFR Case Study Report pdf icon (4.4 MB)


PRPP Bibliography 
Download the Bibliography pdf icon (4.6 MB)

PRPP Workshop Materials
University of California, Berkeley, November 2015
Download the presentations pdf icon (3 MB)

PRPP International Workshop
Jeju, Republic of Korea, October 2016
Download the presentations pdf icon (4 MB)

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